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H.D.Brown语言学习与语言教学的原则第3版笔记和课后答案

[] [] [] 发布人:进思学习网   发布日期:2019-12-02 22:27   共 10 人浏览过

   H.D.Brown《语言学习与语言教学的原则》(第3版)笔记和课后习题详解

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《语言学习与语言教学的原则》(H.D. Brown主编,外语教学与研究出版社)一直被用作高等院校英语专业语言学教材,被部分院校指定为英语专业考研必读书和学术研究参考书。

H.D. Brown《语言学习与语言教学的原则》(第3版)笔记和课后习题详解作为该教材的学习辅导书,全书遵循该教材的章目编排,共分11章,每章由两部分组成:第一部分为复习笔记(中英文对照),总结本章的重点难点;第二部分是课后习题详解,对该书的课后思考题进行了详细解答。本书具有以下几个方面的特点:

1.梳理章节脉络,浓缩内容精华。每章的复习笔记以该教材为主并结合其他教材对本章的重难点知识进行了整理,并参考了国内名校名师讲授该教材的课堂笔记,因此,本书的内容几乎浓缩了经典教材的知识精华。

2.中英双语对照,凸显难点要点。本书章节笔记采用了中英文对照的形式,强化对重要难点知识的理解和运用。

3.解析课后习题,提供详尽答案。本书对H.D. Brown主编的《语言学习与语言教学的原则》每章的课后思考题均进行了详细的分析和解答,并对相关重要知识点进行了延伸和归纳。



第1章 语言,语言学习和语言教学

1.1 复习笔记

本章要点:

1. The definition of language 语言的定义

2. The Grammar Translation Method 语法翻译法

本章考点:

1. 语言的定义;

2. 学习和教学的定义;

3. 课堂教学:语法翻译法。

本章内容索引:

. Language

. Learning and teaching

1. Learning

2. Teaching

. The Grammar Translation Method

. Language(语言的定义)

A consolidation of the definitions of language yields the following composite definitions.

1. Language is systematic and generative.

2. Language is a set of arbitrary symbols.

3. Those symbols are primarily vocal, but may also be visual.

4. The symbols have conventionalized meanings to which they refer.

5. Language is used for communication.

6. Language operates in a speech community or culture.

7. Language is essentially human, although possibly not limited to humans.

8. Language is acquired by all people in much the same way-language and language learning both have universal characteristics.

语言的定义可以从以下8个方面来理解:

1. 语言是系统的、生成的;

2. 语言是一套任意的符号;

3. 这些符号主要是声音的,但也可能是视觉的;

4. 符号有特定的含义;

5. 语言用于交际;

6. 语言在语言社区或文化中起作用;

7. 语言从根本上来说是人类语言,尽管语言可能不只限于人类世界;

8. 人们学习语言的方式大体相似,语言和语言学习具有普遍特征。

. Learning and teaching(学习和教学的定义)

1. Learning(学习)

Breaking down the components of the definition of learning, we can extract domains of research and inquiry:

(1) Learning is acquisition or “getting”.

(2) Learning is retention of information or skill.

(3) Retention implies storage systems, memory, cognitive organization.

(4) Learning involves active, conscious focus on and acting upon events outside or inside the organism.

(5) Learning is relatively permanent but subject to forgetting.

(6) Learning involves some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice.

(7) Learning is a change in behavior.

学习的定义可以从以下7个方面来理解:

(1)学习是习得或“获得”;

(2)学习是保留信息或技巧;

(3)保留需要存储系统,记忆力,认知结构;

(4)学习包括对有机体的内外事件做出主动的、有意识的关注,并对其做出反应;

(5)学习相对持久,但会遗忘;

(6)学习涉及某些形式的练习,也许是强化练习;

(7)学习是行为的改变。

2. Teaching(教学)

A theory of instruction should specify the following features:

(1) The experiences which most effectively implant in the individual a predisposition toward learning.

(2) The ways in which a body of knowledge should be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner.

(3) The most effective sequences in which to present the materials to be learned.

(4) The nature and pacing of rewards and punishments in the process of learning and teaching.

教学的定义应该包含以下4个方面:

(1)在个体学习的倾向中最有效收获的经验;

(2)将一定量的知识以学习者最容易理解的方式进行组织;

(3)呈现学习材料的最有效的顺序;

(4)学习和教学过程中的奖惩的本质和频率。

. The Grammar Translation Method(语法翻译法)

The major characteristics of Grammar Translation:

1. Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.

2. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.

3. Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.

4. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.

5. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.

6. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.


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